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Adam Clarke, BS

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NewYork, NY
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Epidemiology, Demographics, and Pathophysiology of Acute Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord injury occurs through various countries throughout the world with an annual incidence of 15 to 40 cases per million, with the causes of these injuries ranging from motor vehicle accidents and community violence to recreational activities and workplace-related injuries. Survival has improved along with a greater appreciation of patterns of presentation, survival, and complications. 

 

Despite much work having been done, the only treatment to date known to ameliorate neurologic dysfunction that occurs at or below the level of neurologic injury has been intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. An essay writer is a person whose job is to create articles related to spine injury as well. Much research over the past 30 to 40 years has focused on elucidating the mechanisms of spinal cord injury, with the complex pathophysiologic processes slowly being unraveled. With a greater understanding of both primary and secondary mechanisms of injury, the roles of calcium, free radicals, sodium, excitatory amino acids, vascular mediators, and apoptosis have been elucidated. This review examines the epidemiology, demographics, and pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury.

 

 

Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs in various countries throughout the world with an annual incidence of 15 to 40 cases per million, with the causes of these injuries ranging from motor vehicle accidents and community violence to recreational activities and workplace-related injuries.  Of the estimated 12,000 new cases of paraplegia and quadriplegia that occur in the United States each year, 4000 die before reaching the hospital and 1000 die during their hospitalization.  Despite much research, the only pharmacologic treatment to date known to ameliorate neurologic dysfunction that occurs at or below the level of neurologic injury has been methylprednisoloneAn online essay writing service offers an original spinal treatment papers crafted by our professional essay writers.

 

 

Despite this, much research over the past 30 to 40 years has focused on elucidating the complex pathophysiologic processes involved in SCI. In addition to an understanding of the biomolecular changes that occur after SCI, an understanding of the epidemiology of an acute SCI is essential for all those involved in the care of patients undergoing SCI. The social and economic impact of SCI extends to involve, not just the patient and the immediate family, but the community and society at large. Much of what we know about the epidemiology of SCI has evolved over the past 2 decades, and this, as well as the current pathophysio-logy, is now examined in more detail.

 

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

The annual incidence of SCI in developed countries varies from 11.5 to 53.4 per million population.  Olmsted County, Minnesota data from 1975 to 1981 suggested an age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of 71 injuries per million, and these may reflect a more accurate figure as immediate deaths before reaching the hospital were counted. The incidence rate (based on those patients who reached the hospital alive) was 50 per million population per year. Typically, only one in 40 patients admitted to a major trauma center suffers an acute SCI.  An accurate incidence rate requires enumeration of all injured individuals as well as a valid count of the population at risk. The writer assigned to write my essay request of highlighting spinal injuries is qualified to the same academic level or higher than your writing requirements.

 

 

Most published reports on SCI count only those persons who are admitted to the hospital. Deaths of persons before admission to the hospital are not usually counted. The mortality of these injuries, despite their relatively low incidence, is between 48.3% and 79% either at the time of the accident or on arrival to the hospital. Deaths after admission for acute SCI range from 4.4% to 16.7%. Case fatality rates (the proportion of those with SCI that die because of the injury) for patients admitted to a hospital with SCI in recent studies are variable, probably because length of follow-up varies greatly.

 

 

Coupled with this, there are epidemiologic problems, in terms of case definition and classification. Hire a reliable online essay writer who will create an original spinal treatment paper and deliver it on time. In Olmsted County, Minnesota, 11% of all SCI die within the first hospitalization. The 1-year case fatality rate for all patients was 46%, with a case fatality rate of 13% for those who reached the hospital alive. Mortality aside, the relative morbidity associated with acute SCI is also high, with many survivors requiring prolonged or repeated admissions to hospitals for complications after the injury.